This assumes you have installed Docker on Linux and Docker is running. The docker run command is used to run a command against a container. It's also important to recognize that if there is no container for the application being run, the image will be pulled down and the container will be created. For this reason, before issuing the docker run command, you'll want to use the docker images command to return the list of images, like this.
docker images REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE foo latest 105b54dc64f1 32 hours ago 196.7 MB
And the docker ps command to list the containers.
docker ps -a CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES d937372c09ab9 b939aa938add9913 "/docker-entrypoin..." 6 minutes ago Up 30 seconds 0.0.0.0:12345->12345/tcp
In this example, the docker run command is used to perform a SQL database migration.
docker run my-container migrations